George H W Bush advertised self as Reagan successor, beat Michael Dukakis 56%, offered kinder, gentler nation, had foreign policy experience (UN ambassador, China envoy, CIA director), had to deal w/post-Cold-War complications, said it was time to move beyond containment without specifying how. Had Democratic majority Congress, no clear legislative agenda, continued war on drugs from Reagan by funding more police/prisons and increasing border patrols, in 1989 Dec sent troops to Panama to capture Gen. Manuel Noriega (drug dealer, once CIA-funded) and 1E3s of Panamanians died, federal drug control budget tripled. As compassionate Republican Bush passed ADA 190 Jul, which penalized ableism in hiring and required accessibility, many business owners upset, Bush vetoed family leave bill.

End of Cold War created more conflict: nationalism/ethnic/religious tensions, increased income inequality, ideological rivalry shifted to Middle East + other regions w/Islamist militants.

Persian Gulf War: 1990 Aug 2 Iraqi troops stormed & took control of Kuwait, Saddam Hussein thought Kuwait was stolen from Iraq by British (is this true? textbook doesn’t say) during 1920s dismemberment of Ottoman Empire, Kuwait offered oil fields and Persian Gulf ports to landlocked Iraq, Iraq (emerging from 8yr war w/Iran) resented Kuwait’s non-participation in OPEC oil production restrictions. USA worried about potential invasion of Saudi Arabia, sent US forces to Saudi Arabia & Persian Gulf (Operation Desert Shield) 1990 Aug 15, led UN coalition (incl. USSR) in condemning/sanctioning Iraq. 1991 Jan Congress authorized use of military force, UN sanctions & peace missions failed, 1991 Jan 16 GHWB authorized Operation Desert Storm, began bombing military encampments & cities, ground war began Feb 24 and took 100hr to force troops out of Kuwait. 184 US 1E5 Iraqi (mainly from city bombing) dead. Ecological damage severe, high civilian death toll, very bad for Iraq population. Failed to dislodge Hussein, Iraqi Kurds faced severe violence from Iraqi army, trade sanctions only hurt civilian population such that only US & GB were willing to continue them, Saudi Arabia continued to let US troops occupy it (incl. holy sites), angering many Muslims further (they observed USA’d had 17 different Middle East military ops against Muslims 1980-2000).

Persian Gulf War got GHWB ~90% approval (>FDR in WWII!). Bragged about USA role in foreign affairs. However, Republicans’d promised reduced spending & balanced budget, had passed Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Reduction Act/Gramm-Rudman, mandated spending cuts if deficit reduction goals not reached by 1991, in 1989 many savings/loan institutions deregulated by Reagan collapsed, 1989 Oct 13 stock market had huge nosedive into recession (real estate/unemployment/bankrupt businesses), debt reached 4E9, approval rating 51% by 1991.

William Jefferson Clinton antiwar member of Vietnam generation, Arkansas governor, had It’s the economy, stupid. sign at campaign HQ, adopted conservative themes (responsible welfare recipients/focus on families/tough on crime/reduce bureaucracy/boost private investment).

Independent Ross Perot (Texas billionaire) also ran on economic issues, said successful businessmen more qualified than Washington insiders to fix economy. Perot won 19% vote (Clinton 43%), Clinton took that as sign to focus on economy.

In 1st term Clinton approved North American Free Trade Agreement (making business between USA/Mexico/Canada easier/cheaper) 1993 Nov, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (slashed worldwide tariffs/import quotas, created World Trade Organization to mediate disputes). Border cities benefited, production occurred in areas with laxest pollution laws, peso still collapsed and Mexico needed $2E10 bailout, signed 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act, expanded Earned Income Tax Credit, taxed rich more, created AmeriCorps volunteer program for college graduates, had trouble w/health-care reform (4E7 uninsured b/c pricing, pre-existing conditions, job loss), had Hilary Rodham Clinton lead task force to attempt overhaul, didn’t happen, Republicans took House and Senate. Newt Gingrich Speaker of the House and led